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ABOUT YOUR RARE KIDNEY DISEASE

About ADPKD (Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease)

ADPKD is an inherited condition that causes small, fluid-filled sacs, called cysts, to develop in the kidneys. The cysts are not cancerous and the fluid inside them is harmless. Although children affected by ADPKD are born with the condition, it rarely causes any noticeable problems until the cysts grow large enough to affect the kidneys’ function.

Typically, only a few cysts are detected in most affected individuals before 30 years of age; however, by the fifth decade of life, hundreds to thousands of cysts will be found in the majority of ADPKD patients.

The diagnosis of ADPKD relies primarily upon imaging of the kidney. Typical findings include large kidneys and extensive cysts scattered throughout both kidneys. In some cases, genetic testing is required for a definitive diagnosis. There is no cure for ADPKD, but there are treatments that may help control symptoms.

Kidney function will gradually deteriorate until so much is lost that kidney failure may occur.

PHOENIX is evaluating the impact of bardoxolone methyl on kidney function in patients with ADPKD. Researchers will evaluate the change in eGFR among ADPKD patients after 12 weeks of dosing with bardoxolone methyl.

About FSGS (Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis)

FSGS is a kidney disease that can lead to glomerulosclerosis.

Glomerulosclerosis refers to scarring or hardening of the glomeruli, the microscopic filters of the kidneys. Damaged glomeruli can't perform their job adequately. As a result, large amounts of protein from the blood leak into the urine rather than remaining in the bloodstream. This leads to a condition called proteinuria. In FSGS, the scarring occurs only in some of the glomeruli, and only part of the individual glomeruli is damaged.

Despite treatment, FSGS may lead to kidney failure.

FSGS is not caused by a single disease. It can have many different causes. The scarring may happen because of an infection, drug, or disease that affects the entire body, like diabetes, HIV infection, sickle cell disease, or lupus. FSGS can also be caused by another glomerular disease you may have had before you developed FSGS.

PHOENIX is evaluating the impact of bardoxolone methyl on kidney function in patients with FSGS. Researchers will evaluate the change in eGFR among FSGS patients after 12 weeks of dosing with bardoxolone methyl.

About IGAN (IgA Nephropathy)

IgA nephropathy is the most common in a group of conditions referred to as glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis means inflammation of the kidneys which particularly affects the glomeruli, the microscopic filters of the kidneys. IgA nephropathy is given that name because an antibody called IgA is deposited in the glomeruli. Despite much research, we do not know why the IgA deposits in the kidney, and there is no known cause of IgA nephropathy.

Although your doctor may suspect you have IgA nephropathy because of your symptoms, the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy can only be confirmed by obtaining a biopsy (tissue sample) from your kidneys.

Although the function of the kidneys of many patients does not deteriorate, approximately a quarter of all people with IgA nephropathy will eventually develop impaired kidney function followed by kidney failure. This is usually a slowly progressing process.

PHOENIX is evaluating the impact of bardoxolone methyl on kidney function in patients with IgAN. Researchers will evaluate the change in eGFR among IgAN patients after 12 weeks of dosing with bardoxolone methyl.

About T1CKD (Type 1 Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease)

In patients who have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, also known as Type 1 Diabetes or T1D), high levels of glucose (or sugar) in the blood forces the kidneys to work harder in order to filter waste. Over time this can damage your kidneys, resulting in chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease means the kidneys can’t filter blood and make urine like they should. Waste products then start to build up in the blood, and the kidneys may ultimately fail, potentially leading to the need for dialysis.

PHOENIX is evaluating the impact of bardoxolone methyl on kidney function in patients with T1D CKD. Researchers will evaluate the change in eGFR among T1D patients after 12 weeks of dosing with bardoxolone methyl.